TMJ Disorder: Causes, Treatments, Prevention

By Girish Bharwani

Experiencing jaw pain or difficulty chewing can be more than just a minor inconvenience—it might be a sign of a TMJ disorder. This condition affects the temporomandibular joint, a crucial component in your daily activities such as speaking, eating, and even yawning. Understanding TMJ disorder, its causes, symptoms, and treatment options is essential for managing your health and maintaining your quality of life. By gaining insight into this disorder, you can take proactive steps to alleviate pain and prevent further complications.

What is TMJ Disorder?

TMJ disorder refers to a group of conditions affecting the temporomandibular joint (TMJ), which connects your jawbone to your skull. This joint acts like a sliding hinge, enabling the complex movements required for talking, chewing, and other jaw functions. When this joint malfunctions, it can lead to pain, restricted movement, and a variety of other symptoms that can disrupt your daily routine.

The TMJ is one of the most frequently used joints in the body, making it susceptible to a range of issues. TMJ disorders can stem from problems with the joint itself, the surrounding muscles, or a combination of both. These disorders can be temporary or chronic, with symptoms varying from mild discomfort to severe pain. Understanding the intricacies of TMJ disorder is the first step toward finding effective relief and improving your overall well-being.

What are the Symptoms and Causes of TMJ Disorder?


TMJ disorder presents a wide range of symptoms, which can vary in intensity and duration. Common symptoms include:

  • Jaw Pain or Tenderness: Pain is often localized around the jaw joint, but it can also spread to the face, neck, and shoulders.
  • Clicking, Popping, or Grating Sounds: You may hear or feel clicking or popping when you open and close your mouth. This is often accompanied by pain or discomfort.
  • Difficulty Chewing: Pain while chewing or an uncomfortable bite, as if the upper and lower teeth are not fitting together properly.
  • Locking of the Jaw Joint: The jaw may become stuck in an open or closed position, making it difficult to move.
  • Earaches: Pain in and around the ears, sometimes accompanied by ringing in the ears (tinnitus).
  • Headaches and Neck Pain: Frequent headaches or neck pain can be related to TMJ disorder, often due to muscle tension and strain.

Recognizing these symptoms early and seeking professional advice can prevent the condition from worsening and help you find relief sooner.


The causes of TMJ disorder are diverse and can be linked to various factors, including:

  • Jaw Injuries or Trauma: Accidents, falls, or blows to the jaw can damage the TMJ or surrounding tissues, leading to pain and dysfunction.
  • Arthritis: Conditions such as osteoarthritis or rheumatoid arthritis can affect the TMJ, causing inflammation and pain.
  • Genetic Factors: Some people may be more prone to developing TMJ disorders due to inherited structural issues or connective tissue diseases.
  • Stress-Related Habits: Clenching or grinding your teeth (bruxism), often due to stress or anxiety, can put excessive pressure on the TMJ.
  • Misalignment of the Jaw or Teeth: Bite problems, such as overbites, underbites, or uneven teeth, can cause the jaw to function improperly, leading to TMJ issues.

Understanding the potential causes of TMJ disorder can help in developing a targeted treatment plan. By identifying and addressing these underlying factors, you can work towards alleviating the symptoms and preventing further complications.

How is TMJ Disorder Diagnosed?

Diagnosing TMJ disorder involves a comprehensive evaluation by Dr. Bharwani, who specializes in jaw disorders. The diagnostic process typically includes the following steps:

Medical History

Dr. Bharwani will begin by taking a detailed medical history to understand your symptoms, their duration, and any potential triggers. They will ask about previous jaw injuries, arthritis, stress levels, and habits such as teeth grinding or clenching. This information helps to identify patterns and possible causes of your TMJ disorder in Memorial, Houston, TX.

Physical Examination

A thorough physical examination of the jaw and surrounding areas is crucial for diagnosing TMJ disorder. During the exam, Dr. Bharwani will:

  • Listen and Feel: Check for clicking, popping, or grating sounds in the jaw joint when you open and close your mouth.
  • Palpate: Feel the jaw joint and muscles for tenderness or swelling.
  • Assess Range of Motion: Measure how far you can open your mouth and observe any deviations in movement.
  • Check for Misalignment: Look at your bite and the alignment of your teeth to identify any discrepancies that might contribute to TMJ issues.

Imaging Tests

Imaging tests provide a detailed view of the jaw joint and can help in diagnosing TMJ disorder accurately. Common imaging techniques include:

  • X-rays: Provide an initial look at the bones of the jaw and the temporomandibular joints.
  • MRI (Magnetic Resonance Imaging): Offers detailed images of the soft tissues, including the disc within the joint and surrounding muscles. MRI can detect issues such as disc displacement or inflammation.
  • CT Scan (Computed Tomography): Provides a more detailed view of the bone structure of the jaw joint, which is useful for identifying structural abnormalities or damage.

Additional Tests

In some cases, Dr. Bharwani may recommend additional tests to rule out other conditions or confirm the diagnosis. These might include blood tests to check for arthritis or other inflammatory conditions.

Early and accurate diagnosis is essential for effective treatment, so if you’re experiencing symptoms of TMJ disorder, seek professional evaluation promptly.

How is TMJ Disorder Treated?

Treatment for TMJ disorder varies depending on the severity of the symptoms and the underlying cause. A multi-faceted approach is often the most effective, combining self-care practices, medical treatments, and in some cases, surgical interventions.


Medications can help manage the pain and inflammation associated with TMJ disorder. Commonly prescribed medications include:

  • Pain Relievers: Over-the-counter pain medications like ibuprofen or acetaminophen can provide relief from mild to moderate pain.
  • Muscle Relaxants: These are used to reduce muscle tension and spasms, especially if teeth grinding or clenching is a contributing factor.
  • Anti-Inflammatory Drugs: Nonsteroidal anti-inflammatory drugs (NSAIDs) can help reduce inflammation in the joint.


Various therapeutic approaches can alleviate symptoms and improve jaw function:

  • Physical Therapy: A physical therapist can teach you exercises to strengthen jaw muscles, improve flexibility, and reduce pain. Techniques might include stretching, posture correction, and manual therapy.
  • Oral Splints or Mouth Guards: These devices, worn over the teeth, can help reduce teeth grinding and clenching, alleviating pressure on the jaw joint.
  • Counseling and Stress Management: Since stress is a common factor in TMJ disorders, learning stress management techniques such as relaxation exercises, biofeedback, or cognitive-behavioral therapy can be beneficial.

Lifestyle Changes

Making certain lifestyle adjustments can also help manage TMJ disorder symptoms:

  • Dietary Modifications: Eating soft foods and avoiding hard, chewy, or sticky foods can reduce strain on the jaw.
  • Good Posture Practices: Maintaining proper posture, especially during activities such as working at a computer, can prevent additional stress on the jaw muscles.
  • Avoiding Extreme Jaw Movements: Yawning widely, chewing gum, or opening the mouth too wide can exacerbate TMJ symptoms.

Surgical Options

When conservative treatments fail to provide relief, surgical interventions may be considered:

  • Arthrocentesis: A minimally invasive procedure that involves inserting small needles into the joint to irrigate and remove inflammatory byproducts.
  • Arthroscopy: A small incision is made, and a thin instrument equipped with a camera is used to diagnose and treat TMJ disorders. This procedure is less invasive than open-joint surgery.
  • Open-Joint Surgery: In severe cases, when structural problems cannot be corrected with less invasive methods, open-joint surgery may be necessary to repair or replace the joint.

Each patient’s condition is unique, so treatment plans should be tailored to individual needs. Consulting with Dr. Bharwani, who is experienced in TMJ disorders, can help you find the most effective combination of treatments for your specific situation.

How to Prevent TMJ Disorder?

Preventing TMJ disorder involves adopting healthy habits and lifestyle changes that reduce stress on the jaw joint and muscles. While some risk factors like genetics cannot be altered, many preventive measures can help minimize the likelihood of developing TMJ disorder or prevent existing symptoms from worsening.

Practice Good Posture

Maintaining proper posture, especially during activities that require prolonged periods of sitting or standing, can significantly reduce the risk of TMJ disorder. Poor posture can strain the muscles of the neck and jaw, leading to discomfort and pain.

  • Sit Upright: Keep your back straight and shoulders relaxed. Use ergonomic chairs that support your lower back.
  • Align Your Head: Keep your head aligned with your spine, avoiding forward head posture, which can strain your jaw muscles.

Avoid Hard or Chewy Foods

Certain foods can put excessive strain on the temporomandibular joint and muscles, increasing the risk of TMJ disorder.

  • Choose Soft Foods: Opt for softer foods that require less chewing, such as yogurt, cooked vegetables, and tender meats.
  • Avoid Chewing Gum: Refrain from chewing gum and other chewy snacks that can overwork the jaw muscles.

Manage Stress

Stress is a significant contributor to TMJ disorder, often leading to habits like teeth grinding or jaw clenching. Implementing stress management techniques can help reduce the tension in your jaw muscles.

  • Relaxation Techniques: Practice deep breathing exercises, meditation, or yoga to manage stress effectively.
  • Regular Exercise: Physical activity can help reduce stress and improve overall well-being, which can indirectly benefit jaw health.

Perform Jaw Exercises

Regularly performing jaw exercises can help strengthen the muscles and improve flexibility, reducing the risk of TMJ disorder.

  • Jaw Stretches: Gentle stretching exercises can enhance the range of motion and reduce muscle tension.
  • Strengthening Exercises: Specific exercises designed to strengthen the jaw muscles can provide added support to the temporomandibular joint.

Be Mindful of Teeth Grinding

Teeth grinding, or bruxism, is a common cause of TMJ disorder. Being aware of this habit and taking steps to address it can prevent damage to the jaw joint.

  • Use a Mouth Guard: Wearing a custom-made mouth guard at night can protect your teeth and reduce the impact of grinding.
  • Monitor Daytime Habits: Be conscious of clenching your teeth during the day and practice keeping your jaw relaxed.

A Note from Dr. Bharwani

Living with TMJ disorder can be challenging, but understanding and addressing the symptoms early can make a significant difference. If you’re experiencing any signs of TMJ disorder, don’t hesitate to seek professional advice. At GB Dentistry, we’re committed to providing personalized care to help you find relief and improve your quality of life. Remember, your health and comfort are our top priorities.

Whether you’re dealing with mild discomfort or severe pain, our team is here to support you every step of the way. Schedule a consultation today, and let’s work together to restore your smile and ease your jaw pain. Your journey to better health starts with us.

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